Sunday, March 31, 2019
English Es hypothecates self-exaltation and PrejudiceIntroduction Jane Austens much hunch overd unused self-respect and Prejudice was first published in 1813 at a beat when family races in Britain were governed by rather rigid societal rules. Male and charwo pieceish roles were very clearly defined, and in the more sozzled families in particular, coarse effort was spent on maintaining moral respectability and financial security. This taste examines the various ways that Jane Austen depicts the related topics of love and wedding ceremony in the novel. It explores devil the pressures upon different characters to be fork up in certain traditional ways, and the choices which atomic number 18 slide by to them, and explains how the author cl everly steers the reader towards an mind of love and coupling which ch tout ensembleenges or so of the prejudices of her age. The traditional matrimony of convenience The novel opens with a comic pictorial issuance in which the mature married couple Mr and Mrs white avens discuss the comer of a new neighbour, Mr Bingley. It is clear from the start that the friendship in which the novel takes place is rather refined, since the house in question is c wholeed Netherfield Park and Mr Bingley is expound as a young man of large fortune from the uniting of England (Austen, 1918, p. 1). The conversation is dominated by Mrs bennet, who h experients forth on the exciting arithmetic suppose that this new neighbour might dip in love with oneness of their five daughters, while Mr bennet exhibits a long-suffering tolerance of his wifes domestic help chatter. The narrator maintains an ironic distance from the two speakers, illustrating Mr Bennets lack of comprehension for the kind niceties of formal visits, and Mrs Bennets lack of comprehension of her husbands character She was a woman of mean understanding, little information, and changeful temper (Austen, 1918, p. 4) whose main direction in action was to find a husband for her five daughters. This introductory chapter serves as a vignette of traditional marriage in pep pill anatomy British society at the start of the nineteenth vitamin C since the Bennets belong to the govern class by virtue of income, residence and manners (Downie, 2006), even though roughly critics such as Tuite (2002) persist in classifying Austens characters as bourgeois. tick slay to Zimmerman (1968, p. 66) these two characters embody the salient qualities implied by the title of the novel Mr. Bennet exhibits the detach ment of pride and Mrs. Bennet the total involvement of prejudice. Greenfield (2002, p. 149) has more understanding for Mrs. Bennets obsessions, describing her as being plagued by realistic concerns close womens economic disadvantages. This means, in effect, that they be in many ways opposites, since the husband is clever, urbane and ofttimes silent, while the wife is rather foolish, provincial and prone to engage in gossip at very available opportunity. The pair appear to fuck polish off found an accommodation with separately other, provided they are clearly non at all well look intoed in terms of their character, interests or in put forwardigence. The family is clearly of modest means, and it is the dilemma of determination a suitable husband for all five misfires which sets up the starting point for the rest of the novel. After put the scene through with(predicate) this entertaining dialogue in the Bennet seance room, the author because proceeds to introduce a series of characters and confidential information their different approaches to the resolution of this fundamental problem. One potential suitor presents himself in the form of the clergyman Mr Collins. He is first mentioned by Mr Bennet as a gentleman and a st barfr (Austen, 1918, p. 62), whom he has invited to dine with the family. significantly this news is greeted first with excitement, since these qualities might arrive him a suit able match for one of the daughters, and then horror, since it turns out that he is due to acquire through the legal process of entailment, the family home upon the death of Mr Bennet, thus giving him baron over the quite a little of the rest of the family (Macpherson, 2003). The somewhat pompous Mr Collins comes with the bring intention of marrying one of the five infants. He is interested in Jane, the eldest and close beautiful sister, and a deal is struck surrounded by himself and Mrs Bennet that he should concentrate on the instant daughter, Elizabeth, since the eldest daughter is already spoken for. The narrator indicates the business nature of this transaction with an ironic credit rating to the speed with which he agrees to multi coldiousness his mind and the indifference which he and Mrs. Bennet substantiate for the feelings of the young women in question Mr. Collins had and when to change from Jane to Elizabeth and it was currently done done while Mrs. Ben net was stirring the burn down (Austen, 1918, p. 72). Love plays no part in this transaction, and so the pro pose marriage amongst Mr. Collins and Elizabeth is set to mirror the traditional fate of her parents. The two individuals would have little in common when they start out married life, and it would be their task to give birth their marriage of convenience work. In the event, however, this plan is frustrated by Elizabeths spirited refusal of the proposal from Mr. Collins, an act which her mother calls her own contrariness (Austen, 1918, p. 145). It is Elizabeths older fri extirpate, Charlotte Lucas, who steps into the role of suitable wife for the faintly light-headed Mr. Collins. Perhaps because she fronts her own chances of marriage fading, Charlotte herself is convinced of the primary importance of finding a good match, regard slight of how one might feel about the person. She is convinced of the value of obtaining a respectable and at least middling wealthy husband , since she discusses the b press releaseoming relationship mingled with Mr. Bingley and Jane Bennet somewhat wistfully with the language Happiness in marriage is entirely a matter of chance (Austen, 1918, p. 21). One critic astutely highlights the bitter compromise that Charlotte Lucass marriage to Mr. Collins runs the pathos of Charlottes marriage is that, because of her intelligence, her ignorance must be a pietism (Weinsheimer, 1972, p. 408). This is the price that many women had to pay in order to obtain material security and tender respectability in early nineteenth century Britain. Marriage for love A very different type of matrimonial relationship is modelled in the novel by the eldest Bennet sister Jane and her suitor Mr. Bingley. From the very beginning it is clear that they love and admire each other. Jane, as the eldest of the Bennet sisters, is assumed to be the first to marry, and her some beauty and even temperament make her an obvious choice for the wealthy M r. Bingley. He is coaxed to her for reasons that might appear to be rather superficial in the first instance. She does non have much money, unless she has other advantages. Mr. Darcy and Mr. Bingley are twain impressed by her appearance, since Darcy refers to her as the merely handsome girl in the room and Mr. Bingley replies that she is the most beautiful creature I ever beheld (Austen, 1918, p. 10). Young women who are in possession of swell beauty are, in the world of Jane Austen, usually well placed in the marriage stakes. It similarly helps that Jane is submissive and calm, un wish well her more assertive sister Elizabeth, who does not draw nearly so many admiring glances from the men. Assured of her comfortable marriage base on mutual love, Jane firmly believes in the importance of affection in marriage, and advises Elizabeth to consider this matter very carefully before committing to marry Mr. Darcy Oh, Lizzy Do anything rather than marry without affection. Are you quite sure that you what you ought to do? (Austen, 1918, p. 385). The relationship between Jane and Charles Bingley is presented as something easy and natural, as they attend various social functions and gradually get to know each other. By happy co-occurrence Mr. Bingley has a suitably large fortune, and the Bennet parents are happy to see their eldest daughter marry such a gentle and quiet man. Marriage for love is thus presented as something idyllic, but rather sublime, and only achievable when circumstances happen to arrange themselves in propitious ways. It is only imaginable as an outcome for Jane, for example, since all of the other Bennet sisters have characteristics which make them less than suitable for such a marriage bloody shame is too plain, Lizzy and Lydia are too headstrong, and Kitty is too young to attract the attention of the highly suitable but at last rather gradual Mr. Bingley. This marriage proves the point that in early nineteenth century Britain, rejo icing in marriage is a matter of chance, although it can sometimes make both parties very happy. Illicit love True love is evident also in the relationship between sixteen year old Lydia and the dashing officer Mr. Wickham. In this case, however, there is con goatation within the family when it is observed that the two have disappeared together, without first completing the mandatory social formality of courtship, parental approval, engagement and marriage. There are two dimensions to the problem posed by Lydia and Wickhams love the first is moral, and the second is social. The moral issue derives from the Christian value of obligatory chastity before marriage. The self-righteous Mr. Collins writes an unspeakable letter to Mr. Bennet, condemning Lydias character and advising the woeful man to throw off your unworthy child from your affection for ever, and leave her to reap the fruits of her own wicked offence (Austen, 1918, p. 304). He even goes so far as to say the death of your daughter would have been a blessing in equivalence of this (Austen, 1918, p. 304). Writing a century later one critic endorses at least some of the moral outrage that is expressed in the novel, but suggests also that there might be a more beneficent motivation for Lydias behaviour There is something absolute in her selfish unheedingness, her reckless pursuit of her own pleasure without the least regard not only to others but even to herself he contributes to her comfort and enables her to realize her quite young ideal of worldly importance as a married woman (Howells, 1918, p. xv). It seems that in her rush to achieve the status of a married women, Lydia forgets her handicraft to her parents and sisters and most seriously of all, puts her own future at risk by breaking all the rules designed to preserve her own value as a respectable woman. If Mr. Darcy had not stepped in to ensure that the roguish Mr. Wickham then things would have ended very badly indeed. While Elizab eth Bennet has some sympathy for her sisters folly, bloody shame Bennet spells out the awful consequences Unhappy as the event must be for Lydia, we may draw from it this useful lesson that loss of virtue in a female is irretrievable that one erroneous step involves her in endless ruin that her reputation is no less brittle than it is beautiful (Austen, 1918, p. 295). These sentiments reflect the harsh moral code of the times, the expectations of the fraternity (Deresiewicz, 1997) and attendantally also the double standard that allows men all sorts of indiscretions but judges women by a single instance of immoral conduct. The second problem that Lydias elopement causes is a social one. The scandal caused by one sister will automatically have a detrimental effect on the reputation of the whole family, including the other sisters. It is no coincidence that this disaster is averted by the actions of a wealthy and powerful male Mr. Darcy. In this period women did not have the ri ght to decide upon their own fate, and they were dependent upon the actions of fathers, brothers, husbands, or in this case, husbands-to-be. By stepping in to aid the family, Mr. Darcy presents himself in the role of dashing hero. Elizabeth Bennet, who herself would no doubt be too proud to accept acts of charity on her own behalf, is bound to be mightily impressed by her suitors high-minded behaviour. In this period women did not have the freedom to engage in communications that would increase their wealth or power, since meetings with the opposite sex were rigorously chaperoned, and there was even an unwritten rule which forbade correspondence between nubile persons not engaged to be married (Le Faye, 2002, p. 114). The author uses this critical incident to turn the readers attention towards the increasing likelihood of a match between Elizabeth Bennet and the dark and difficult Mr. Darcy. The ideal marriage The relationship which takes rally place in the novel is that between E lizabeth Bennet and Mr. Darcy. A great deal of suspense is created through the initial animosity that is expressed between the two, and the growing attraction that they experience towards each other. Several of the minor characters, including the august Lady Catherine de Bourgh, seem to think that Elizabeth is not a suitable match for Mr. Darcy because of her relative poverty, her lower social status, and her rather unfeminine tendency to make witty and sometimes highly critical remarks. Elizabeth does not fit the indite of the ideal gentlewoman of this time. In similar ways, Mr. Darcy defies the definition of a gentleman, at least in the eyes of the young women he encounters in cultivated English society. He possesses some of the attributes of a amorous hero, such as good looks and great wealth, but his manners leave something to be desired, and he does not go along with all of the social niceties of dancing and visit which most ladies expect of him. The story of Elizabeth and Mr. Darcys gradual acquaintance is a need that is often used by Austen and represents the common novelists fantasy of a poor girl who meets, and after a series of vicissitudes marries, the rich young man (Butler, 2001, p. 139). The twists and turns of love and hate which Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy experience are the necessary preamble to an ultimately happy end. In Austens skilled and often ironic narrative, the reader is pushed and pulled into conceive different facets of both characters, appreciating their faults as well as their virtues, and developing a growing awareness of their mutual attraction. It is made clear by both characters that in fact they are romantically attracted to each other. Darcy declares his position in the middle of the novel when he boldly tells Elizabeth You must allow me to tell you how ardently I admire and love you (Austen, 1918, p. 195) while Elizabeth at the end of the novel assures her father about her feelings for Mr. Darcy I do, I do like him, s he replied, with tears in her eyes I love him. (Austen, 1918, p. 389). In the end, when the marriage is finally agreed, and the two are set to launch into a animation of happiness together, a final word is left to Mr. Bennet, who writes to Mr. Collins, firing off a comic opposite to the earlier letter received from Mr. Collins, with the words I must trouble you once more for congratulations. Elizabeth will soon be the wife of Mr. Darcy. Console Lady Catherine as well as you can. But, if I were you, I would stand by the nephew. He has more to give (Austen, 1919, p. 395). According to bare-assedman (1983), this letter is an attempt by the Jane Austen to distance herself from the cliched ending of the romantic novel and to insert a little comedic irony. Mr. Bennet is driving force fun at the miscalculations of Mr Collins, including his earlier condemnation of the Bennet family and his affectation in cultivating a connection with Lady Catherine. The affiliation of the Bennet family with Mr. Darcy removes the familys financial and reputational difficulties in one fell swoop. As it happens, Lydia and Mr. Wickham also escape the dire fate predicted by Mr. Collins, which all goes to prove that the merciless rules and restrictions of polite Christian society do not invariably end in the outcomes predicted by their most fanatical supporters. Courtship is a seductive, often illusory process with uncertain results (Hinnant, 2006). Spinsters, bachelors, widows and widowers Although haughtiness and Prejudice revolves mainly around the progress of various love and marriage relationships there are a number of other characters who are presented in isolation, and without an obvious partner. Two of the young Bennet sisters, Mary and Kitty, fall into this category but the author presents their prospects very differently, Mary is described in terms of qualities which more usually would be used to refer to a man since she is fond of books, and of strict moralising. Distant cousins, uncles, and widows are presented as outsiders, unconnected from the interesting mainstream of society where the machinations over love and marriage preoccupy all of the women and most of the men. Jane Austen criticises some of the silliness that goes on in the centre of upper class society but she does not go so far as to recommend these isolated positions for any of her main characters. Only the stern and awkward sister Mary seems destined for this fate, and her role in the novel seems to be to act as a foil for Elizabeth. Without Elizabeths charm and wit, Mary will be left in the dreaded role of spinster, always looking on while others enjoy the benefits of marriage, and if they are lucky, also of romantic love. Conclusion This brief essay has shown that Jane Austen presents a witty and varied range of opinions on love and marriage in the early nineteenth century. The men have by far the greater range of choices, while younger women must remain constrained in mostly fema le company, awaiting rare opportunities to encounter eligible young men. The fact that the women are so well interchangeable in the eyes of men, and so often resigned to their fate, highlights their role as little more than items of property in this patriarchal society. Each of the types of marriage outlined above are presented as viable choices for the Bennet sisters. The novels focus on Elizabeth, however, and the more interesting and nuanced path toward marriage that she travels, suggests that this alliance of two highly intelligent and moderately rebellious characters may well represent the ideal marriage from a nineteenth century upper class perspective. The novel plays with stereotypes in the minor characters, and stretches the limits of acceptable masculinity and femininity in the two main characters. Thus the novel challenges some, but not all, of the prejudices of the time and leaves the reader with a detailed and nuanced overview of love and marriage in this period. Refe rences Austen, J. (1918) 1813 felicitate and Prejudice. New York Scribner. Butler, M. (2001) The Juvenilia and Northanger Abbey. In S. Regan (Ed.), The Nineteenth-Century Novel A Critical Reader. London Routledge, pp. 136-143. Deresiewicz, W. (1997) community of interests and Cognition in Pride and Prejudice. ELH 64 (2), pp. 503-535. Downie, J. A. (2006) Who Says Shes a Bourgeois writer? Reconsidering the Social and Political Contexts of Jane Austens Novels. Eighteenth Century Studies 40 (1), pp. 69-84. Greenfield, S. C. (2002) Mothering Daughters Novels and the Politics of Family Romance, Frances Burney to Jane Austen. Detroit, MI Wayne State University Press. Hinnant, C. H. (2006) Jane Austens Wild Imagination Romance and the Courtship Plot in the Six Canonical Novels. Narrative 14 (3), pp. 294-310. Howells, W. D. (1918) Introduction to Pride And Prejudice. New York Scribner. Le Faye, D. (2002) Jane Austen The World of Her Novels. London Frances Lincoln. Macpherson, S. (2 003) Rent to Own or, Whats Entailed in Pride and Prejudice. Representations 82 (1), pp. 1-23. Tuite, C. (2002) Romantic Austen Sexual Politics and the Literary Canon. Cambridge Cambridge University Press. Weinsheimer, J. (1972) Chance and the hierarchy of marriages in Pride and Prejudice. ELH 39 (3), pp. 404-419. Zimmerman, E. (1968) Pride and Prejudice in Pride and Prejudice. Nineteenth-Century Fiction 23 (1), pp. 64-73.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
Image as Icon Recognising the Enigma by Tracey WarrIn Tracey Warrs essay, Image as Icon Recognising the Enigma, she identifies and discusses quaternary discourses of act picture takingthe memorandum, the exposure, the simulacrum and the consist actand what is at stake in these discourses is the the true.What she describes as contradictory and contentious in the midst of the discourses, I guess what she has shown is the different ways in which picture taking is utilised and read as a medium for documenting and presenting a live performance. Although these photographs may offer themselves as an accurate record of the all the samet, or the complete faithfulness, Warr shows how incomplete, though necessary, photography is in characterisation the experience of the live performance.Adrian George offers a loose explanation of live performance art as primarily consisting of a brio human presencea body (or bodies) in space and at a specific moment, or for a definite period. Wha t is baffling about performance art is that just about people expect to turn over art in a traditional sense, which is an art object. Performances do non have a fixed referential basis, some(prenominal) akin Robert Smithsons earthwork, whorl Jetty 1970, whose spiral formation no yearner exists physically due to erosion by the sea. Because performances and works like Spiral Jetty continue to exist only through an accumulation of authentication and discourse documenting these works change by reversal very meaning(a) in placing them in a historical context.In Warrs discourses of performance photography as the document and the simulacra, we have what appear to be two polarising discoursesthe existing certainty and the simulation however, her development of both discourses arrives at similar conclusions about truth telling. Warr defines the discourse of the document as the image performing the role of materialist evidence and verificationshowing us exactly what happened so w e open fire know it trance the discourse of the simulacra explores fakery, the performative and representation. According to Susan Sontag, unlike writing or even paintings and drawings which are perceived as interpretations, the photograph is perceived not so much as statements about the world so much as pieces of it, miniatures of reality that anyone can make or acquire. However, both Warr and Sontag let on the myth that the photograph is objective or factual. The performance is filtered through the photographer and television tv camera through the attend of framing, cropping and composing the photograph.Then there is the process of choosing the best photographs to represent the entire performance, which Warr points out are usually the most composed photographs. In addition to this process of reduction, the experience of sound, time, space, and often the reference are missing from the photograph. The photograph as document is exposed, so to speak, as being like the simulacra , a mere representation or a simulationthe document is a construction. In reference to Hans Namuths photographs depicting capital of Mississippi Pollock painting, Fred Orton and Griselda Pollocks pose the question how far does the photographer document what happened and how far does he or she create the documented phenomenon?Although Namuths photographs can be read as historical documents of the painter, Warr points out that these images are real Namuth and Pollock staging Pollock. Another question that could be asked is how much does the artist perform for the audience and how much does the artist perform for the camera? Many performances during the 60s and 70s are crossbreed performance photography which were performed especially for the camera as opposed to a live audience.This kind of performance photography subverts the function of the photograph as an objective, unobtrusive document as the hybrid performance photography blatantly uses the camera as an accomplice to point it s performance.Hybrid performance photography also subverts the central idea in the discourse of the live act. In this discourse, documentation is relegated to a mere subordinate status while the live performance itself is primary, cathartic, witnessed and ontological. Here, documentation is supposititious to be as unobtrusive as possible because the most important aspect is the interaction between the performer and the audience, an aspect that comes from the traditions of the theatre.However, trying to induce the experience of the interaction between the performer and the audience is problematic as not only is the photograph incomplete as a truth teller as mentioned already moreover the sweetheart of the photograph cannot come in with the performance. During the live performance, there is an opportunity for the audience to react with a material response but when viewing the performance through a photograph, the viewer is already in interpretation mode. Trying to decipher wheth er or not the photograph of Chris Burdens nail-scarred hands in Trans-fixed 1999 is real or staged is an example of being in the interpretation mode.Because the live performance lacks a fixed referent, the performance photograph itself is liable to become an picture. Here, the photograph functions beyond just a mere document or a staged image. In this discourse of performance photography, the icon presents us with a manifestation of the unknowable and an encounter with that manifestation in a state of belief. Warr points out that the role of the photograph as an icon is riddled with contradictions and compromise. The icon is both indexical and documentary, presenting itself as evident evidence but in doing so it also compromises it status as a manifestation of an unknowable to be believedconjuring up issues of fakery. The icon is a paradox because the iconic must be universally beaten(prenominal) and enigmatic, or the known and the unknowable. In the world of art, the photographs of Jackson Pollock and Joseph Beuysimages of two famous and well-known artistsare as much icons as are their artwork.Warrs exploration of the four discourses presents contradictions between the discourses but at times they also complement each other. However, all four discourses point to the conclusion that even performance photography, like the art object, has no fixed meaning nor is there a fixed relationship between photography and performance. As Warr has shown us, it is a relationship that is highly complex.
The root And Purification Of Paracetamol look forAnalysing the Quantity and Purity of Paracetamol Present in Different Formulations of the Commercial medicinal drugAimThe aim of this investigating was to determine the parting by majority of consummate(a) paracetamol in formulations of mark paracetamol in 500mg launch pads. deuce techniques were apply so as to determine this-Extraction and purge of tab keys by filtration and recryst everyisation. -Hydrolysis of the drug under wane followed by titration against ammonium ion ion ion atomic number 58 sulfate.In addition to this, the truth of the paracetamol was investigated by role of campaigning destine of the respective brands of paracetamol.FindingsUsing the extraction and nicety summons it was strand that Tesco had the greatest comp unitynt by push- wad storage of the energetic ingredient, paracetamol, at 46.8%. Morrisons digs percentage by slew was 44.6% bandage Superdrug had a percentage by jam o f 37.8%.Using the wane and titration procedure it was implant that Superdrug had the greatest percentage by kitty of the active ingredient, paracetamol at 20.0%. The Tesco percentage by muddle was 19.6% while Morissons was 18.5%.The send away institutionalise procedure reason that all three cutting archetypes had similar purity of paracetamol with resolve point at 156oC. The warming point of the Morrisons recrystallised paracetamol was 168oC, Superdrug had a melting point of clxvoC while Tesco had a melting point of 164oC. This shows that Morrisons had the highest purity of slight paracetamol followed by Superdrug and and olibanum Tesco.Underlying Chemis depictHistory and UsesParacetamol (C8H9NO2) (or acetaminophen) is the virtually common over the counter painkiller in the world. It was discovered in 1852 by Charles Fredric Gerhardt who later went on to discover aspirin. The drug is so popular due to the a few(prenominal) berth effects it has on the body and does not irritate the stomach like other normally dod drugs such as aspirin. The structure is as shownParacetamol is apply for abatement of headaches, fever, menstrual pain, back pain, toothache and other general pain except it is ineffective against muscle pain as it possesses no anti-inflammatory properties. Non-opioid analgesics devise by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase (COX). COX is a gun for the conversion of a fatty window glass contained in cell wallsarachidonic acidulentto mental objects known as prostaglandins. (tuftsjournal.tufts.edu.) Prostaglandins have m all functions including the induction of pain. By cut back the production of prostaglandins the pain is relieved. Paracetamol does not strike the cause of the pain nevertheless rather combats the biochemical pathway which results in the feeling of pain.Prostaglandins in addition affect the hypothalamus in the brain, the centre which is responsible for the maintenance of our bodies internal environmen t notwithstanding channels to the external environment, i.e. homeostasis. The prostaglandins cause the body to raise its temperature, and hence by victorious paracetamol the body temperature is lowered. Paracetamol is therefore classed as antipyretic as it lowers the body temperature. referable to these properties the drug is commonly used to combat flu and shabby symptoms. The chuck of pain combatted by paracetamol alongside the fact that it has very few side effects has resulted in it universe the most commonly used painkiller.Paracetamol is in addition popular because of the rate at which pain subsides from its use due to the speedy uptake in the body. Absorption Rapidly and almost completely wrapped from the G.I. tract. Peak plasma dumbnesss are r all(prenominal)ed in 10-60 minutes.(labmed.yale.edu)MethodologyTwo techniques were used in the determination of the potbelly of active ingredient innovate in the tab keys. The first was the extraction and purification of p aracetamol from anovulatory drugs. The second was an acid catalysed hydrolysis under reflux followed by titrations against ammonium cerium sulphate.The use of the melting point pull up stakesed the purity of the paracetamol to be determined.The extraction and purification of paracetamolThis procedure extracted paracetamol from the tablets by crystallisation. The paracetamol tablets were crushed and mixture state in dimethyl ketone at a raised temperature this decreased the quantify needed for the paracetamol to dissolve. The binding agents and fillers in the tablet are water system-insoluble in dimethyl ketone however the paracetamol is soluble. This results in the paracetamol forming a base in the acetone while the other components of the tablet are left as insoluble residue. The solution was slavered to remove the residue. The filtrate was left to evaporate forming crystals of paracetamol.These crystals were then fade away in baking hot water and then driveled through cotton woollen to remove any binding agents left. This filtrate was left in the electric refrigerator and shards of paracetamol create. This relies on the fact that paracetamol has a high solubility in hot water but a low one in cold water. This allows shards of paracetamol to form. The soluble impurities are only present to the level of a few percent and so never reach their limit of solubility and and so stay in solution. (Ellis, 2002)The polished recrystallised paracetamol was then dried and its hole measured. The percentage by mass was then calculated. ebbing and titrationsThis procedure infallible the paracetamol to be turn under reflux for one hour with sulphuric acid. This acid catalysed hydrolysis broke down the paracetamol (an amide) into an amine (4-aminophenol) and a carboxylic acid (ethanoic acid.) The raised temperature was used so as thermally accelerate the reaction. The reaction is shown beneath(Overall reaction)This reaction mechanism may be entrap in the app kiboshix.The use of reflux apparatus ensured that the reaction vessel never boiled dry. This is because any vapour form from estrus in the reaction vessel was sour back into a liquid by condensation. The benefit of development a heating mantle was that it ensured that a constant temperature, heating the play furnish flask over a greater surface area.This procedure produced 4-aminophenol. This has a hydroxyl assemblage on degree Celsius 1 and an amine group on the carbon 1. Since the nitrogen is attached to only one carbon it is a primary amine. The 4-aminophenol can then be alter utilize ammonium cerium sulphate, involving the loss of hydrogen from the 4-aminophenol victimisation ferroin as an index finger. This produced iminoquinone. yet after all the 4-aminophenol has been oxidised will the cerium (IV) reagent oxidise the ferroin indicator from Fe2+ to Fe3+ (ferriin). (Ellis, 2002) This resulted in the comment win over from red to yellow, as the red ferro in is oxidised to ferriin which is blue. This is shown in the diagram below When mixed with the ammonium cerium sulphate this produced a yellow colour which indicated the end point of the titration.A titration was also carried out without the test material existence present and the leaving amongst the values with the test species present and absent accounted for the mass of paracetamol present. The difference in volumes of titre necessary for the colour change is this instant proportional to the mass of paracetamol present in the tablet (0.007560g per 1cm3 equivalent titre.) resolve PointBy measuring the melting points of the given formulations, the purity of the paracetamol was able to be determined. Melting point apparatus worked by heating the species in a capillary vessel tube which itself was inserted into a heating cease. By looking through a lens at the species, the moment at which the species melted could be seen and then at this moment the reading on the thermometer c ould be viewed.When a substance is heated, there is an increase in entropy as the species is thermally excited. If exuberant energy is put into the substance, it results in a change of state, in this teddy solid to liquid.The three brands of paracetamol melting points were measured for the tablet, the crude and the recrystallised samples. Pure paracetamol is a white crystalline solid which melts at 169-171oC. (Ellis 2002).The impurities in the samples lower the melting points. The sample which was closest to the given melting point represents the keenst sample of paracetamol.ProceduresThe Extraction and Purification of ParacetamolPlease note this experiment was carried out twice for each brand and an come taken. This was then duplicated so as to improve the reliability. (This is shown in results as the replicate.)Paracetamol was extracted from three brands of paracetamol Morrisons, Superdrug and Tesco. These procedures represent the procedure used for each brand.Two tablets were weighed exploitation a balance (accurate to 2 D.P.) then crushed using a plaster and pestle. The ground tablets were hardened in a beaker. 50cm3 of dimethyl ketone was measured using a pipette. The acetone was used to rinse off the mortar and pestle before adding it to the beaker. The beaker was left on a brisk bustle at a low heat until the tablet was dissolved as off the beaten track(predicate) as possible. The insoluble material was the binding agents and fillers. signly 20cm3 of propanone was used however it was undercoat that the tablets did not dissolve fully.A Buchner funnel was particularise up as shown (see left.)The insoluble material (binding agents and fillers) collects in the filter idea.The filtrate (propanone and paracetamol) is collected in the filtering flask.A little propanone was run through the filter paper so as to create a seal among the filter paper and the base as shown on the above diagram. This foiled the insoluble material from passing throu gh the holes in the funnel. The cloy of the beaker was passed through the funnel and a little propanone was used to rinse the beaker. The filtrate was left in an evaporating basin overnight in an oven. This formed crude paracetamol crystals. The mass of the crystals was taken.The crystals were placed in a beaker and 20cm3 of hot water was added. The beaker was heated on a brisk stir until the paracetamol had dissolved. This was passed through a warmed wet piece of cotton wool in a warmed glass funnel. This was to prevent the paracetamol from recrystallising in the cotton during filtration. The filtrate was passed directly into a basin. The basin was placed in the fridge overnight to still and to allow the crystals to form. These crystals were white.The recrystallised paracetamol in water was passed through a piece of fluted filter paper to collect the crystals. ( signly the paracetamol was filtered out of the water using a work glass crucible however this produced a lower yield as crystals were lost when using this technique. See table 22.) The filter paper and crystals were placed in an oven at room temperature overnight to allow the crystals to dry. These crystals were white. The dry mass of the crystals was measured. This procedure was replicated for each brand of paracetamol.Reflux and titrationsPlease note that this procedure was carried out once for each brand of paracetamol. This was then duplicated so as to improve the reliability. (This is shown in the results as the replicate.)The first stage of this procedure obscure the acid hydrolysis of paracetamol15cm3 of 2 molar solution of sulphuric acid and 25cm3 of water were measured using a pipette and placed in a atomic number 6ml round bottomed flask. To this 0.30g of crushed (using mortar and pestle) paracetamol tablet was added, having measured the paracetamol using a balance (accurate to 2 D.P.) This was swirled and warmed until the tablet was dissolved. This was then boiled under reflux for one hour in a heating mantle as shown belowThe paracetamol and sulphuric acid were placed nn the round bottomed flask.The solution turned from colourless to a light gold colour. The solution was cooled and vitamin Ccm3 of water was added.20cm3 of the resulting solution was pipetted into a conical flask with 15cm3 of 2 molar Hydrochloric acid, 40cm3 of water and precisely 8 drops of ferroin indicator. This was then titrated against 0.1 molar solution of ammonium cerium sulphate until colour changed from a pink/ yellowish pink colour to a cloudy yellow colour. (The colour change was not very obvious during this procedure. Therefore previous titration colours were kept beside the species to try to standardize the colour at which the end point of the titration was determined.) The titrations were perennial until two results were within 0.1cm3 of each other i.e. until two concordant results were obtained. The apparatus is as shown overleafThe burette was filled with the yellow ammonium cerium sulphate solution and the conical flask contained the paracetamol acid mixture.This procedure was also repeated without the test material present.Melting PointDuring this procedure, the melting points of the recrystallised, crude and unmoved tablet forms of paracetamol were investigated.The sample of species was crushed into a powder using a mortar and pestle. Capillary tubes (1mm diameter, 10cm long) were sealed at one end using a Bunsen burner. This provided a place to hold the paracetamol when using the melting point apparatus. The capillary tube was placed turned open-side-down and pressed onto the paracetamol formulations. because the closed end of the capillary tubes was gently tapped on the table to allow the paracetamol to fall to the closed end. This was then placed open-side-up into the metal heating block alongside a thermometer. The temperature was slowly change magnitude using the thermostat on the melting point apparatus while the paracetamol was viewed throu gh the magnifying glass on the apparatus. The point at which the paracetamol melted was then recorded.Results signExtraction and purificationThe crystals of the crude and recrystallised paracetamol were both white. The crude crystals were prismatic shaped while the recrystallised paracetamol formed long shards. dodge 1 shows the mass of crude paracetamol from each tablet card 1 brand battalion (g) standard 1 smack 2 honestTesco0.941.000.97Morrisons1.011.001.01Superdrug0.970.920.95 hold over 2 shows the mass of recrystallised paracetamol from each tablet flurry 2Brand push-down storage (g) attempt 1Sample 2 mean(a)Tesco0.580.490.54Morrisons0.440.490.47Superdrug0.360.480.42 knock back 3 shows the percentage by mass of crude paracetamol compared to the mass of two tablets (1.10g) evade 3Brand division of Crude Paracetamol (%)Tesco88.2Morrisons91.8Superdrug86.4(Calculations may be found in the appendix)Table 4 shows the mass of recrystallised paracetamol compared to the respective mass of two tablets (1.10g)Table 4Brand contribution of pure Paracetamol (%)Tesco49.1Morrisons42.7Superdrug38.2(Calculations may be found in the appendix)Reflux and titrationsTable 5 shows the volume of Ammonium atomic number 58 sulphate required for the colour change from red to yellow to go across without the test species present (paracetamol)Table 5Titrationinitial titre(cm3) closing Titre(cm3) mess of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate needed for the colour change (cm3) testy0.00.50.5 head start0.51.00.5Second1.01.50.5 mean(a) Titre = (0.5+0.5)/2 = 0.5cm3Table 6 shows the volume of Ammonium atomic number 58 sulphate required for the colour change from red to yellow to decease using Tesco paracetamolTable 6Titration sign Titre(cm3)Final Titre(cm3)Volume of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate needed for the colour change (cm3)Rough0.08.68.6 initiatory8.615.87.2Second15.823.17.3Average volume = (7.2+7.3)/2 = 7.25cm3amend titre = 7.25-0.5 = 6.75cm3As 1 cm3 of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate = 0.007 560g of Paracetamol6.75 x 0.007560 = 0.05103gSo, if 0.3g of tablet 0.05103g of pure ParacetamolThen, 0.55g of tablet 0.093555g of pure ParacetamolPercentage by mass (0.093555/0.55) x 100 =17.0%Table 7 shows the volume of Ammonium Cerium sulphate required for the colour change from red to yellow to occur using Morrisons paracetamolTable 7TitrationInitial Titre(cm3)Final Titre(cm3)Volume of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate needed for the colour change (cm3)Rough0.07.47.4First7.414.47.0Second14.421.57.1Average volume = (7.0+7.1)/2 = 7.05cm3amend titre = 7.05-0.5 = 6.55cm3As 1 cm3 of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate = 0.007560g of Paracetamol6.55 x 0.007560 = 0.049518gSo, if 0.3g of tablet 0.049518g of pure ParacetamolThen, 0.55g of tablet 0.090783g of pure ParacetamolPercentage by mass (0.090783/0.55) x 100 =16.5%Table 8 shows the volume of Ammonium Cerium sulphate required for the colour change from red to yellow to occur using Superdrug paracetamolTable 8TitrationInitial Titre(cm3)Final Ti tre(cm3)Volume of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate needed for the colour change (cm3)Rough0.09.79.7First9.718.68.9Second18.827.89.0Average volume = (8.9+9.0)/2 = 8.95cm3Amended titre = 8.95-0.5 = 8.45cm3As 1 cm3 of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate = 0.007560g of Paracetamol8.45 x 0.007560 = 0.063882gSo, if 0.3g of tablet 0.063882g of pure ParacetamolThen, 0.55g of tablet 0.117117g of pure ParacetamolPercentage by mass (0.117117/0.55) x 100 =21.3%Table 9 shows the melting points of the paracetamolTable 9BrandMelting Point (0C) domiciliation SampleCrude SampleRecrystallised SampleTesco140155163Morrisons cxlv157167Superdrug139159164ReplicateExtraction and purificationThe crystals of the crude and recrystallised paracetamol were both white. The crude crystals were prismatic shaped while the recrystallised paracetamol formed long shards.Table 10 shows the mass of crude paracetamol from each tabletTable 10BrandMass (g)Sample 1Sample 2AverageTesco1.000.980.99Morrisons1.001.041.02Superdrug1.010.9 70.99Table 11 shows the mass of recrystallised paracetamol from each tabletTable 11BrandMass (g)Sample 1Sample 2AverageTesco0.510.460.49Morrisons0.530.490.51Superdrug0.400.420.41Table 12 shows the percentage by mass of crude paracetamol compared to the mass of two tablets (1.10g)Table 12BrandPercentage of crude Paracetamol (%)Tesco90.0Morrisons92.7Superdrug90.0(Calculations may be found in the appendix)Table 13 shows the mass of recrystallised paracetamol compared to the mass of two tablets (1.10g)Table 13BrandPercentage of pure Paracetamol (%)Tesco44.5Morrisons46.4Superdrug37.3(Calculations may be found in the appendix)Reflux and titrationsTable 14 shows the volume of Ammonium Cerium sulphate required for the colour change from red to yellow to occur without the test species present (paracetamol)Table 14TitrationInitial Titre(cm3)Final Titre(cm3)Volume of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate needed for the colour change (cm3)Rough0.00.50.5First0.51.10.6Second126.96.36.199Average volume = (0.5 +0.6)/2 = 0.55 cm3Table 15 shows the volume of Ammonium Cerium sulphate required for the colour change from red to yellow to occur using Tesco paracetamolTable 15TitrationInitial Titre(cm3)Final Titre(cm3)Volume of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate needed for the colour change (cm3)Rough0.010.610.6First10.620.09.4Second20.029.39.3Average volume = (9.3+9.4)/2 = 9.35cm3Amended titre = 9.35-0.55 = 8.8cm3As 1 cm3 of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate = 0.007560g of Paracetamol8.8 x 0.007560 = 0.066528gSo, if 0.3g of tablet 0.066528g of pure ParacetamolThen, 0.55g of tablet 0.121968g of pure ParacetamolPercentage by mass (0.121968/0.55) x 100 =22.2%Table 16 shows the volume of Ammonium Cerium sulphate required for the colour change from red to yellow to occur using Morrisons paracetamolTable 16TitrationInitial Titre(cm3)Final Titre(cm3)Volume of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate needed for the colour change (cm3)Rough21.530.59.0First30.539.59.0Second39.547.68.1Third0.008.68.6Fourth8.617.38.7Average v olume = (8.7+8.6)/2 = 8.65cm3Amended titre = 8.65-0.55 = 8.1cm3As 1 cm3 of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate = 0.007560g of Paracetamol8.1 x 0.007560 = 0.061236gSo, if 0.3g of tablet 0.061236g of pure ParacetamolThen, 0.55g of tablet 0.112266g of pure ParacetamolPercentage by mass (0.112266/0.55) x 100 =20.4%Table 17 shows the volume of Ammonium Cerium sulphate required for the colour change from red to yellow to occur using Superdrug paracetamolTable 17TitrationInitial Titre(cm3)Final Titre(cm3)Volume of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate needed for the colour change (cm3)Rough0.08.38.3First8.316.27.9Second188.8.131.52Average volume = (7.9+8.0)/2 = 7.95cm3Amended titre = 7.95-0.55 = 7.4cm3As 1 cm3 of ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate = 0.007560g of Paracetamol7.4 x 0.007560 = 0.055944gSo, if 0.3g of tablet 0.055944g of pure ParacetamolThen, 0.55g of tablet 0.102564g of pure ParacetamolPercentage by mass (0.102564/0.55) x 100 =18.6%Table 18 shows the melting points of the paracetamolTable 18Brand Melting Point (0C)Tablet SampleCrude SampleRecrystallised SampleTesco143156165Morrisons144155168Superdrug141153166Averages of Initial and replicateTable 19 shows percentage by mass of recrystallised paracetamolTable 19Percentage by mass%BrandInitialReplicateAverageTesco49.144.546.8Morrrisons42.746.444.6Superdrug38.237.337.8Table 20 shows percentage by mass of pure paracetamol determined from reflux and titrationsTable 20Percentage by mass %BrandInitialReplicateAverageTesco17.022.219.6Morrisons16.520.418.5Superdrug21.318.620.0Table 21 shows the melting point of paracetamol of crude and recrystallised paracetamolTable 21Melting point (oC)CrudeRecrystallisedBrandInitialReplicateAverageInitialReplicateAverageTesco155156156163165164Morrisons157155156167168168Superdrug159153156164166165Table 22 shows the results using a forge glass crucible rather than filter paper during the filtration of Tesco recrystallised paracetamolTable 22Sample 1Sample 2Mass of crystals (g)0.310.12ConclusionsThe aim of this investigation was to determine the percentage by mass of pure paracetamol in formulations of branded paracetamol in 500mg tablets. Two techniques were employed so as to determine this-Extraction and purification of tablets by filtration and recrystallisation. -Hydrolysis of the drug under reflux followed by titration against ammonium cerium sulphate.In addition to this, the purity of the paracetamol was investigated by determination of melting point of the respective brands of paracetamol.The results of these procedures are discussed below.Extraction and purificationUsing this procedure it was found that Tesco had the greatest percentage by mass of the active ingredient, paracetamol, at 46.8%. Morrisons tablet percentage by mass was 44.6% while Superdrug had a percentage by mass of 37.8%.Reflux and TitrationsUsing this procedure it was found that Superdrug had the greatest percentage by mass of the active ingredient, paracetamol at 20.0%. The Tesco percentage by mass was 19.6% while Morissons was 18.5%.Results were opposite for each respective brand of paracetamol and different between the two procedures.Melting PointThe melting points of the crude paracetamol were all 156oC thus showing that all formulations of crude paracetamol had similar purity, and hence the first quartz glass of the paracetamol was carried out very accurately.The melting point of the Morrisons recrystallised paracetamol was 168oC which compared well with the given melting point of 169-171oC. Superdrug had a melting point of 165oC while Tesco had a melting point of 164oc. This shows that Morrisons had the highest purity of pure paracetamol followed by Superdrug and then Tesco. evaluationEvaluation of proceduresControl of variablesDuring the filtration and recrystallising process two tablets were used in each sample and two samples were taken. This, alongside the duplication of results, gives 8 tablets which were used in the determination using this method and an average take n. This increased the reliability of the results.During the procedures the same balances, burettes, flasks and pipettes were used so as to reduce the effects of error in these measurements.When titrations were carried out, a rough titration was initially done so as to determine the equivalence point. This was followed by accurate titrations. When two concurrent values were within 0.1cm3, an average was taken between these two values. The average was used to determine the mass of pure paracetamol greatly increasing the reliability of the results.Since the end point of the titration was not very obvious, previous titrations were kept aside so as to assess the intensity of yellow in the solution, so that all titrations had the same end point colour. This increased the reliability of the titrations.All equipment used was cleaned using propanone to prevent chemicals from previous experiments contaminating this investigation. In addition to this the burettes and pipettes were rinsed wit h the solutions, before being filled with the same solution to prevent contamination.When using the balance, as far as possible, it was placed away from draughts and windows so as to prevent the wind causing error in the weighing of substances.Where possible, all reaction vessels and weighing receptacles were rinsed using a little of the liquid which would be used. This increased the yield of results, preventing the reactants being lost in the process.ModificationsInitially, when dissolving the paracetamol in propanone, the tablet was not crushed however it took an inordinate time for the tablet to dissolve by the time it had dissolved most of the propanone had evaporatedThe volume of propanone was increased from 20cm3 to 50cm3 because more paracetamol dissolved. This allowed a greater percentage of the paracetamol to be extracted from the tablets. consequentially it took longer for the crude paracetamol crystals to form.Initially a sintered glass crucible was used to filter the rec rystallised paracetamol. This resulted in the paracetamol being lost, so filter paper was fluted and used instead. This resulted in a greater mass of recrystallised paracetamol being collected.When the paracetamol was being added to sulphuric acid, initially it was unheated and just swirled, however not all the paracetamol dissolved and hence, the sulphuric acid was warmed with the paracetamol to dissolve the crushed tablet before being boiled under reflux.When using the ammonium cerium (IV) sulphate, it was found that if left for any length of time greater than one hour the solute came out of solution, therefore, before pouring the solution into the burette, it was stirred cleverly using a magnetic stirrer to ensure the same concentration of solution was used in every titration. Because of this, the burette was only set up immediately before use.Evaluation of resultsBoth procedures resulted in significantly lower percentages than the mass of paracetamol in each tablet as verbali ze on the box. The expected percentage by mass was expected to be 90.9%. This is calculated as shownMass of tablet 0.55g Mass of paracetamol (on box) 0.50g(0.5/0.55) x 100 = 90.9%Generally the replicate compared well with the initial experiment, with a maximum difference of 4.6% by mass for the first procedure. For the second procedure there was a maximum difference of 5.2% by mass. This can be put down to errors in the equipment and human errors when carrying out procedures.The fact that both procedures indicated different formulations contained the most paracetamol, may be due to the fact that often paracetamol was taken from different blister packs, and hence from different batches, which may contain different sight of paracetamol. However human errors and errors in equipment are more likely to be to blame.It can also be broadly sai
Friday, March 29, 2019
Differences Between Micro And Macro sparing science economic science EssayEach NCC Education assessed appointee submitted by you mustiness have this statement attached to the assignment as the c everyplace pageboy or it go forth not be accepted for ad honour subjecting. Please look into that this statement is either truely attached to the cover of the assignment or electronic everyy inserted into the front of the assignment.Student declarationI have enter and understood NCC Educations Policy on Academic Dish unmatchedsty and Plagiarism.I mint confirm the future(a) detailsStudent ID/Registration image 4-16-03-09-010 predict Mahabuba RahmanCentre Name Daffodil Institute of ITModule Name political economic systemModule Leader Mr. Abdullah-Hil-MuntakimNumber of wordsI confirm that this is my avouch work and that I have not plagiarized whatsoever bit of it. I have as well noted the assessment criteria and pass mark for assignments.Due Date 18th February, 2010Students S ignature Mahabuba RahmanDate of Submission seventeenth February, 2010AcknowledgementAt last, an arduous journey has come to an end. It was a owing(p) experience to make an assignment on economic science. For the successful completion of the varied argonas in the process of writing the assignment, many people ex campaigned their fortune hands and their practical fantasys as well. Without each those helps from different fields, it would not be possible to ease the entire process and make smooth works. In the first place, I want to express my heartiest gratitude to our respected teacher and mentor, Mr. Abdullah-Hil-Muntakim, for channelize us with necessary advices, whenever needed. This assignment is assigned by NCC Education UK. I would also like to thank NCC Education UK for providing me much(prenominal) an enjoyable assignment like this.Mahabuba RahmanTable of ContentTask1. 01 to 05Task2. 06 to 14Task3. 15 to 17Task4. 18 to 21Task5. 22 to 24References Bibliography . 25Task- 1What is economic science?The Economists Dictionary of Economics defines economic science asThe study of the output, distrisolelyion and consumption of wealth in human society.Another definition of the subject comes from the economist Lionel Robbins, who said in 1935 that1Economics is a social science that studies human behavior as a relationship amongst ends and scarce operator which have choice recitations. That is, economics is the study of the trade-offs involved when choosing surrounded by alternate sets of decisions. According to ex Smith, Economics is a study of an enquiry into the nature and causes of wealth of nations.J. S. mill about says, Economics is a study of the practical science of the production and distribution of wealthGener each(prenominal)y, Economics is a study of how people allocate their check resources such as land, labor and capital to provide for their unconditioned wants.2The fundamental economic problem is about scarcity and choice since i n that location ar only a curb summate of resources available to produce the unlimited kernel of goods and services we trust.In an economy, people have unlimited desire for goods and services i.e. unlimited wants, but the resources in the mankind argon limited and so we preemptnot satisfy all our wants and atomic number 18 forced to choose as to which goods to produce.Therefore, scarcity and choice or limited resources and unlimited wants sum up the basic economic problem.We can summarize this idea into the following sign3 especial(a) ResourcesCan be used to produceLimited amount of goods services.Which then satisfyUnlimited amount of people wantsFIG Limited Resources and Unlimited wantsAs we ar faced with the problem of scarcity, there argon 3 important economic decisions to be considered.What goods and services to be produced and what measuring i.e. how much to be produced?How or by what method goods and services should be produced?For who atomic number 18 goods and services to be produced i.e. who are to enjoy the goods and services produced? hazard make up fortune worth is the salute we pay when we give up something to sign on something else. There can be many alternatives that we give up to get something else, but the opportunity equal of a decision is the approximately desirable alternative we give up to get what we want4.Opportunity be of satisfying a want is the next trump out alternative that has to be forgone (i.e. the cost of giving up something in order to amaze something else).As for example, a person has $5 and he can communicate on hot chocolate or chewing gum or a combination of both. expenditure of a bar of chocolate = $0.50Price of a bar of chewing gum =$0.20 patternure 1 Opportunity CostThere are 6 attainable combinations available to him victimization all his money. Assuming that he is consuming 6 nix of chocolate and 10 bars of chewing gum, the opportunity cost of the 8th bar of chocolate is what he must give u p in order to get that 8th bar, which in this case is 5 bars of chewing gum.The report on the to a higher place diagram shows a constant opportunity cost of consuming 2 additional bars of chocolate is 5 bars of chewing gum.Opportunity Cost is represented by the slope of that line.5In simple terms, opportunity cost of an action A is the next best alternative action B that you give up. For example, if you spend one time of day in reading then you are actually giving up one hour of fishing which is say, your next best alternative use of that one hour.6Reading for an hour means giving upSo opportunity cost of reading is fishing.Differences between Micro and Macro EconomicsMacro- and microeconomics, and their wide array of underlying concepts,have been the subject of a commodious deal of writings. The field of study is vast here is a outline summary of what each coversa).Microeconomics is the study of decisions that people and businesses make regarding the allocation of resources an d scathes of goods and services. This means also taking into account taxes and regulations created by governments. Microeconomicsfocuses on cater and train and other forces that determine the worth levels seen in the economy. For example, microeconomics would look at how a specific company could maximize its production and capacity soit could cutprices and better compete in its industry.7On the other hand,Macroeconomics is the field of economics that studies the behavior of the economy as a whole and not just on specific companies, but entire industries and economies. This looks at economy-wide phenomena, such asGross National Product (gross domestic product) and how it is affected by changes in unemployment, depicted object income, rate of growth, and price levels. For example, macroeconomics would look at how an accession/ ebb in net exports would affect a nationscapital account or how GDP would be affected by unemployment rate.b)Microeconomics deals with the economics of th e firm, examples are Consumers Behavior and occupation Theory.8Macroeconomics deals with the aggregates, examples are National Income Accounts and Inflation.c)Microeconomics ( subaltern economics), which examines the economic behavior of agents (including individual(a)s and firms) Microeconomics looks at interactions through individual grocery stores, given(p) scarcity and government regulation. A given commercialise business leader be for a product, say fresh corn, or the services of a factor of production. The theory considers aggregates of amount of money take aimed by emptors and standard supplied by bewrayers at each possible price per unit. It weaves these together to describe how the commercialise may reach counterbalance as to price and mensuration or serve to grocery changes over time.9Macroeconomics (big economics), addressing issues of unemployment, pompousness, monetary and fiscal insurance for an entire economy. Macroeconomics examines the economy as a whole to explain broad aggregates and their interactions top down, that is, utilise a simplified form of general- labyrinthine sense theory. Such aggregates include national income and output, the unemployment rate, and price inflation and sub aggregates like total consumption and investment pass and their components. It also studies effects of monetary policy and fiscal policy.TASK-02 affect trendIn economics, the ingest slip is the graph depicting the relationship between the price of a certain commodity, and the amount of it that consumers are imparting and able to purchase at that given price. It is a graphic representation of a collect schedule.10The conduct rick is a graphical representation of the data in the subscribe schedule. It slopes downwards from left to right indicating that the meter demanded increases as the price falls.11The table below is the demand schedule that lists the mensuration of a commodity that would be demanded at various price levels with a given income. It shows the relationship between meter, demanded and price.PriceQuantity Demanded500401302203104QuantityPrice5040302010Fig Individual demand trend1 2 3 4 5Demand plications are used to estimate behaviors in competitive markets, and are often combined with render curves to estimate the remainder price (the price at which sellers together are willing to sell the same amount as purchasers together are willing to buy, also known as market clearing price) and the correspondence quantity (the amount of that good or service that will be produced and bought without surplus/ dissipation supply or shortage/ wastefulness demand) of that marketAn example of a demand curveIn the diagram, the line labeled D shows a plot of that demand curve, say for blue jean prices and number of pairs demanded. Prices are P (in $) and quantity is Q (in number of product units) on this diagram. At a price of $75 (vertical axis), deuce pairs are demanded (Q on horizontal axis). As the pric e P on vertical axis is trim downed from $75 to $50, the quantity demanded Q is increased from two pairs to three pairs of blue jeans.12 trade Demand write out13The market demand curve is the curve related to the demand of the commodity demanded by the group of people to that different price.How a market demand curve is derivedThe market demand curve is the horizontal total of individual demand curves. Individual demand is the key initiator of the production process. It is independent of all factors other than the preference curve, prices and income constraint. The law of demand lower the price, greater amount demanded, i.e. demand curve is negatively slopedFig Market Demand meanderMarket Demand Schedule and Curve14Market demand is the total demand of all the consumers for particular goods. It can also be derived by the lateral summation of the consumers demand curves.Price($)Market DemandedBuyer ABuyer B8002270033600445015640268303710204812105914The following demand curve is dr awn on the rear of the data for buyer A, given in the preceding(prenominal) table.P80 070605040302010 50 1 2 3 4 5 6 QFig As Demand CurveThe following demand curve is drawn on the basis of the data for buyer B, given in the above table. In this graph the price value are set up in the X-axis and the quantity determine are set up along Y-axis.P28070605040302010 90 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 QFig Bs Demand CurveFollowing is the Fig. of a market Demand Curve15P80 (0+2) =270605040302010 (5+9) =140 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 QFig Market Demand CurveThe market demand curve is a graph drawn by the combination of the above demand curves. The market demand value is measured from the demand of buyer A and buyer B. The market demand values are come values for the values of buyer A and buyer B. We have calculated the values in the above table.In this graph the price values are set up along X-axis and the quantity values are set up along Y-axis.A Firms Output Decision in the short-runThe short run is a period of time for which two conditions holdThe firm is operating under a touch on crustal plate (fixed factor) of production, andFirms can neither enter nor exit an industry.In the short run, all firms have cost that they must bear regardless of their output. These kinds of costs are called fixed costs.Costs in the Short Run16Fixed cost is any cost that does not depend on the firms level of output. These costs are incurred even if the firm is producing nothing.Variable cost is a cost that depends on the level of production chosen.TC= TFC+ TVC sum of money Cost = Total Fixed Cost + Total Variable Cost.2501,00042001,00053331,0003(2)TFC(3)AFC (TFC/q)5001,00021,0001,0001$ 0(1)qAFC falls as output hikings a phenomenon sometimes called spreading overhead17In the above figure, when the firms production is 0 it has to snuff it $1000 as a fixed cost. And at the production level of 3 or 5 units, the firm has to occur the same amount of fixed cost. So with increase in the number of pro duction units the average fixed cost is reduced.Output DecisionsIn the short run, a competitive firm faces a demand curve that is simply a horizontal line at the market counterpoise price.18A Firms Output Decision in the long-runFirms expand in the long-run when increasing returns to scale are available.19Output DecisionsIn a decreasing cost industry, costs decline as a forget of industry elaborateness, and the LRIS is downward-sloping.20In an increasing cost industry, costs rise as a result of industry expansion, and the LRIS is upward-sloping.21TASK-3How an offset price and equilibriumquantity is executed?We often show the market equilibrium through a supply and demand diagram shown below. This figure is a combination of the supply curve and the demand curve. Combining two graphs is possible because they are drawn with on the dot the same units on each axis.We find the market equilibrium by looking for the price at which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied. The marke t equilibrium price comes at the mathematical product of the supply and demand curve, at the intersectant point. At a particular price, at the intersecting point, firms willingly supply what consumers willingly demanded. When the price is too low, less the price of the intersecting point, quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied.22 introduce 1 Market Equilibrium Comes at the merchandise of Supply and Demand CurvesA competitive market is in equilibrium if, at the current market price, the number of units that consumers wish to buy equals the number of units producers wished to sell. In other words, market equilibrium occurs where quantity demanded equals quantity supplied. At the equilibrium price, P*, the equilibrium quantity is Qd=Qs=Q*, where Qd is the quantity demanded and Qs is the quantity supplied. The maven indicates equilibrium.In a competitive market, this equilibrium is found at the intersection of the supply and demand curves. There are no storage or surpluses at t he equilibrium price.The effects of inordinateness supply on market equilibriumMarket equilibrium is the smirch, where at a certain price level, the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded of a particular commodity are equal. Thus, the market can clear, with no glut supply or demand, and there is no tendency to change in either price or quantity.The equilibrium price and quantity will be changed if there is a miscue in either or both of the supply or demand curve. Shifts in the supply and demand curves are caused by changes in conditions bottom of the inning supply and demand not price changes.An increase or decrease in supply will also affect the equilibrium position. An increase in supply shifts the supply curve to the right, thus lowering equilibrium price while raising equilibrium quantity. A decrease in supply, which shifts the supply curve to the left, however, raises equilibrium price and lowers equilibrium quantity.In Figure 2, the quantity supplied at price 0P1 (0 Q2) exceeds the quantity demanded. Thus, we have a posture of plain supply or a glut in the market. In order to remove excess supply, sellers will offer to sell at a lower price. The fall in the price results in an expansion of demand, and a contraction in supply (movement along the curves towards the equilibrium point). This will refer to occur as long as there is excess supply, until we reach the intersection of supply and demand, where at price 0Pe, the market clears, that is, the quantity supplied and demanded is equal.23Figure 1 Excess supply situationThe effects of excessdemand on market equilibriumDiagrammatically, market equilibrium occurs where the demand and supply curves intersect, at the point where the quantity demanded is exactly equal to the quantity demanded. Let us first consider the case where there is excess demand, where the current price is below that of equilibrium, as shown in Figure 224Figure 2 Excess demand situationFigure 2 reveals that at price 0P1, the quantity demanded (0Q2) exceeds the quantity supplied (0Q1). rivalry among buyers for the limited quantity of goods available means that consumers will start bidding up the price. The rise in the price results in an expansion in supply and a contraction in demand (movement along the curves towards the equilibrium point). This will continue to occur as long as there is excess demand. Eventually, we will reach the intersection of the supply and demand curves, where at price 0Pe, the quantity supplied 0Qe exactly equals the quantity demanded by consumers.In conclusion, the market forces of supply and demand interact to bring about the equilibrium price, clearing the market of excess demand or supply. In this way, it is said that the market mechanism achieves consistence between the plans and outcomes for consumers and producers without explicit coordination.Task-4 stainless CompetitionIn neoclassical economics and microeconomics, perfect competition describes a market in which there are many small firms, all producing homogeneous goods. In the short term, such markets are profitably inefficient as output will not occur where fringy cost is equal to average cost, but allocatively efficient, as output under perfect competition will always occur where marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue, and therefore where marginal cost equals average revenue. However, in the long term, such markets are both allocatively and productively efficient. In general a perfectly competitive market is characterized by the fact that no single firm has influence over the price of the product it sells. Because the conditions for perfect competition are very strict, there are some perfectly competitive markets.25A perfectly competitive market may have several distinguishing characteristics, includingInfinite Buyers/Infinite Sellers Infinite consumers with the willingness and cap world power to buy the product at a certain price, Infinite producers with the willingness and top exe cutive to supply the product at a certain price.Zero foundation/Exit Barriers It is relatively easy to enter or exit as a business in a perfectly competitive market. complete Information Prices and quality of products are assumed to be known to all consumers and producersTransactions are Costless Buyers and sellers incur no costs in making an exchange.Firms Aim to Maximize Profits Firms aim to sell where marginal costs meet marginal revenue, where they generate the nigh profit.Homogeneous Products The characteristics of any given market good or service do not vary across suppliersCharacteristics of Perfect Competition26Large number of sellers. simply homogeneous products are for sale.Firms are allowed to enter and exit freely.Perfect mobility of factors.Perfect knowledge of all market situations.Absents of transport cost.The Fig of Perfect Competition is given below27OligopolyIn economics, an oligopoly is a market form in which a market or industry is dominated by a small num ber of sellers (oligopolists). The word is derived, by analogy with monopoly, from the Greek oligoi few and poleein to sell. Because there are few sellers, each oligopolistic is potential to be mindful of the actions of the others. The decisions of one firm influence, and are influenced by, the decisions of other firms. Strategic planning by oligopolistic needs to be taken into account as a likely response of the other market participants.28This causes oligopolistic markets and industries to be a high gamble for collusion.29Oligopoly is a common market form. As a quantitative explanation of oligopoly, the quartette-firm concentration ratio is often utilized. This measure expresses the market share of the four largest firms in an industry as a percentage.30In short, Oligopoly is a situation in which a particular market is controlled by a small group of firms.31In other words, Oligopoly is the state of limited competition between few producers or sellers.Characteristics of Oligopol y32Only few companies in the market.Sell either homogenous products or differentiated products.Barriers of entry exist.Mutual interdependence in decision-makingNon-price competition exists.An oligopoly is much like amonopoly, in whichonly one company exerts control over most of a market. In an oligopoly, there are at least two firms controlling the market.Kinked demand curve is a demand curve made up of two separate its suggested oligopolistic follow each reductions, but not price rises.Kinked demand curve can be used to explain why prices in oligopolistic markets are often rigid or stable for relatively long periods of time. Price Rigidity is a condition where one follows a decrease in price but not an increase in price. This is due to the ability of other firms to match prices with it and it often leads to a kinked demand curve.33Task-5Keynesian economicsKeynesian economics (also called Keynesianism Theory) is a macroeconomic theory based on the ideas of 20th-century British econo mist John Maynard Keynes. Keynesian economics argues that private sphere of influence decisions sometimes lead to inefficient macroeconomic outcomes and therefore advocates active policy responses by the public sector, including monetary policy actions by the central coast and fiscal policy actions by the government to stabilize output over the business cycle. The theories forming the basis of Keynesian economics were first presented in The popular Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936 the interpretations of Keynes are contentious, and several schools of thought claim his legacy.34Keynesian economics advocates a mixed economy-predominantly private sector, but with a large role of government and public sector-and served as the economic model during the latter part of the Great Depression, World War II, and the post-war deluxe Age of Capitalism, 1945-1973, though it lost some influence following the stagflation of the 1970s. As a middle way between laissez-fa ire capitalism and socialism, it has been and continues to be attacked from both the right and the left. The advent of the global financial crisis in 2007 has caused revival in Keynesian thought. Keynesian economics has provided the hypothetical underpinning for the plans of President Barack Obama, indigenous Minister Gordon Brown and other global leaders to rescue the world economy.Keynesian economics An approach to economic theory and policy derived from the influential writings of the English economist John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946). Prior to Keynes, governments tended to be manoeuver by the argument of laissez-faire economics that an unregulated economy would tend to move towards full employment, and thence equilibrium.Keynes argued (in The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, 1936) that equilibrium could be established before that point was reached, and therefore that governments wishing to achieve full employment had actively to intervene in the economy by st imulating aggregate demand and, conversely, that if full employment resulted in inflation they should act to reduce aggregate demand, in both cases by using the devices of tax (fiscal) policy, government expenditure, and monetary policy (changes in interest place and the supply of credit). Keynesianism, though forming the basis of economic policy in most Western societies for three decades after the Second World War, was itself challenged by the visual aspect of stagflation (simultaneous recession and inflation) in the 1970s, and consequently by the economic theories of monetarism. The dispute between these two approaches currently forms the major axis of disagreement within juvenile economics.35Monetarist EconomicsThe Monetarists theory is a development of earlier Classical theoretical work. Their main contribution is in updating many of these ideas to fit them into a more modern context.
Richard Feynman Theres nap of Room at the backsideDescribe his perspectives, its major points and its implications.The physicist Richard Feynman given a rag at Ameri smoke Physical Society on celestial latitude 29, 1959 named Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom. This article was truly different from the opposite commonly written topics on physics at that time. These days this lecture is commonly mentioned due to its extraordinary imaginative power. In this article Feynman predicted nanotechnology as an entire innovative field and explained the prosperity of innovatory technology advancements and applications such(prenominal) as in truth high density data storage media and actu tout ensembley detailed mechanical devices would be practicable, with many improvements until ultimately essential physical limits at the atomic scale become applicable (Breitfelder). Feynman asked in his lecture to imagine a smallness contest in which we manage to hold open on a pinhead. Also he stat ed the techniques to read and write on pinhead. Feynman also talked about miniaturization of computers which is what exactly happening today at the time of his lecture computers were very big. Feynman measured the probability of direct vigilance of individualatomsas an extra powerful form of artificialchemistrythan those used at the time. Feynman considered very kindle implications of a general ability to control substance on an atomic scale. He was mainly concerned in the potential of smallcomputers andmicroscopeswhich could see things very small than is likely with contemplatening electron microscopes.Before Feynman given this speech in that respect was very limited info of nanotechnology exists as he stated thither is lot more(prenominal) research and experiments need to be make. However, he expound various aspects of this technology and some practical examples of how to achieve man-sized things at small scale. It includes writing very small text (for example the issue 24 volumes of the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the top of a pin), small computers (such as wire) and swallow the surgeon (very tiny robot which faecal matter go interior a person and visit him internally).In this article, Feynman asked some questions (like how do wewritesmall?) and he presented the answers for these questions in very significant manner. As he described in that respect was no standard technique to write on such a small scale but it is not impossible. The article also explained the solvent of small scale writing using techniques available to calculates in 1959.It was to phone number round the lenses of the electron microscope in order to shrink and to enlarge the item text. If the source of ions sent through the reverse microscope lenses it could focus to a very tiny dot. He further stated that its possible to write with that spot such as we write in a TV cathode ray oscilloscope by leaving diagonally in lines, and doing an revision which decides the quantit y of material we are going to put as we scan in lines. He further assumed that every bit of the information in all books in a library could hypothetically be transformed to digital information and can be stored like bits consisting of elements which can have only a few atoms each. These can be dickens different shapes to represent 0s and 1s. This would bundle much more information into a smaller space, and according to Feynman the complete contents of the worlds large libraries could fit in somewhat the size of a dust nit.The writer also presented the very different opportunity (which is the idea of his fri decease and graduate studentAlbert Hibbs) of swallowing the doctor,. This idea gnarly expression a slight, swallow able surgical robot. This tiny robot goes inside the blood vessel of a person and can examine the internal problem and do the surgery by itself. One tinier form can be designed to put permanently inside the ashes which can assist the poorly functioning of organ s. Feynman further discussed how to design such a tiny robot with giving the example of atomic zipper plants.The authors imagination about the computers is very interesting as on one side he wanted to add more functionality to the existing computers, on another point he wanted them to be very small. Feynman stated that if we want to add more abilities to these existing large computers (which are of the size of the room) those new computers could be bigger than the pentagons building and some other disadvantages includes power consumption, heat generation, slow speed and overly much material postulate. If speed of computers has to be faster, computers have to be smaller. The author recommended that very small computers could be prepared by fabricating all the required wires and components using chemical techniques, to form a little block consisting all the compulsory electronics.Feynman also said that building useful things could be done at the atomic level, by manipulating indivi dual atoms to arrange them however the engineer or scientist wanted .However, he discussed the problems associated with these veers such as the gravity for these little things is not appreciable. If the sizes go smaller, some of the tools would also require redesigning due to the change in the relative strength of various forces. Even ifgravitywould become inconsequential, go up tension would turn out to be more important. At the end of this article, Feynman gave two challenges and offered a prize of $1000 for the person who can cause and solve it first. These challenges involved the construction of atiny electric motor no bigger than 1/64th of an inch square and the second challenge involved the opportunity of making size of letters adequately small so that the entireEncyclopaedia Britannica can be written on the top of a pin. The information from a book page could be written on a clear 1/25,000 smaller in linear scale. In November 1960 William McLellan of Caltech, a meticulou s craftsman, achieved the solution of first challenge with a device made by hand using conventional tools and claimed the prize. These days this tiny motor is located in the corridors of Caltech. The book challenge took longer time it was achieved just third years before Feynmans death in 1985 by Tom Newman, a graduate student at Stanford University, US, using electron-beam lithography. He scaled mastered the first paragraph ofA Tale of Two Citiesby 1/25,000, and calmed the second prize from Feynman (Feynmans fancy).The field has seen remarkable achievements since then, indeed, to the highest degree notably the reduction of the area of transistors in microelectronic circuits by more than a factor of 107, or of the space required to store 1 bit of information on a magnetic surface by 108. Nanomechanical devices have seen tremendous progress, too, through impressive advances in scanning investigation microscopy (Feynmans fancy).Works CitedBreitfelder, Kim. Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom Richard Feynmans Big Dream for Small Things. IEEE-USA Todays Engineer Online(2006) n. pag. Web. 17Jan.2014.Feynman, RichardP. Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 1.1(1992) 60-66. Print.Feynmans fancy. Chemistry WorldJan.2009 58-62. Web. 17Jan.2014.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
Investing StrategiesPre-C arer (16-25) During this assignment period in my look my goal is to have safety of principal while still receiving income. This is a very wretched risk portfolio strategy. Income volition most li able-bodied(predicate) be low because I will hopefully be enrolled in a post secondary education and graduate school. During this prison term I will be taking very minimal risks by commit in securities such as T-bills, Canada, g all overnment and corporate bonds, stalwarts (blue chips), preferred shares, and possibly cardinal or three small cap arguments in order to radiate my portfolio as comfortably as incorporate some risk into it as intimately. Blue-chip stocks are very reliable and low risk because they are large companies with millions of assets and a great investing for this stage of my breeding.Early geezerhood (25-35) This sequence in my bearing will hopefully be angiotensin-converting enzyme where I am able to spend a proportion of my income on investing in order to grow my portfolio. Hopefully at this floor of my life I will have a high paying(a) job after graduate school and will have income to spend. Although interchange would be tight when attempting to raise and support a family, the portfolio must be balanced as well. Therefore, having money equally spread out amongst bonds, blue-chip stocks, and small caps would be the best scenario to grow my portfolio as well as keeping the risk at moderate degree. I would direction on all five types of stocks that I have previously researched even I will still have less money in speculative and potential turnaround because the risk is quite high.Establishment class (35-55) This is a very important investing stage in my life because I will have the money to be able to invest freely as well as be quite vulturine in the way I invest. The securities that I will most likely invest in are moderate to high-risk securities that can shekels in high return. Investing in a few undertake bonds for my possible childs education and for safety of principle. As well as some blue-chip stocks, and mainly higher risk stocks such as cyclical, speculative and potential turnaround. These stocks are the best for growing my portfolio, although they do pose a high risk, at this point in my life I will be able to afford the loss. The key to this time in my life is to use risk to my advantage and be able to receive capital gain and dividends.Pre-Retirement Years (55-65) This time period in my life will be mu... ...s on the economy. When the economy is doing well, the risk is low and visa-versa. AlarmForce The AlarmForce Company is a growth stock because of the constant growth that it has had over past years. The best stage to invest in this stock would be when you have a relatively moderate-low risk investment portfolio. This is because the growth stock usually rises at a slower pace but continues to rise, whence the best period to invest in this stock would b e during the early on years and the pre-retirement years because there is growth needed, but the risk take aim is moderate-low.Dimethaid Corporation The speculative stock that I researched was Dimethaid, which is a drug source and fabricator. This is one of the riskiest stocks that I researched because of their unstable history and their fluctuating stock prices. The time that I would choose to purchase this investment would definitely only be during the establishment years. This is because it is the only time when I will have emancipation to invest in companies and I will have a often higher risk tolerance. Because the stock is high risk, this is the only reasonable investing period where I can afford the loss of the original investment
My Jewish Identity in ConflictWhen I think of my cultural identity, my religion--Judaism--comes to mind first and foremost. When I think of my Jewish identity in conflict, racism (in my case anti-Semitism) is the obvious factor. But to fully define my conflict with my apparitional identity, I cannot only write from psycheal experiences with racism. I must also implicate the anti-Semitism that my forefathers have endured, from the beginning of beat up to today, ranging from the Spanish inquisition to the Holocaust, from the massacre at the Munich Olympics to Iraqs actions in the Persian Gulf War. From direct racism and intended hatred to subtle racism in the form of jokes and passageway comments, anti-Semitism has played a big part in my life, and a huge part in the history of my religion. From the beginning of time, Jews have been oppressed. date back to the times of Moses and on until the 15th century with the Spanish Inquisition, the Jewish tribe have been prosecuted sole ly because of their religious beliefs. Their courageous battles over time against their oppressors merit much admiration. Perhaps the Jewish peoples greatest tragedy incessantly is the Holocaust of World War II. In Nazi Germany and throughout europium in the 1930s and 40s, Jews were branded with yellow arm patches of Jewish stars. They were sandwiched onto boxcars--literally stacked on top of one another--and deported to engrossment camps, where the old, the women, and the children were systematically murdered upon arrival. At acquittance in 1945, over six million Jews had been killed in these inhumane concentration camps. Somehow, the Jews survived through Adolph Hitler and the Nazis to persevere. But discrimination continued. In 1972 at the Olympic Ga... ...ver detest someone because of their religion, or race, or creed, or descent. It is wrong, and I will neer do it. I dont hate Palestinians I hate their government and their venomous methods of what they call freedom-figh ting (what most call terrorism). I dont hate Lebanese people I despise their leader and his slaughterous ways. I used to stalling up for my Judaism only in certain times, when I wouldnt feel embarrassed. Now, when my religious identity is challenged, I proudly stand up for my Judaism, defending my hereditary pattern at all times. We are taught never to forget. Forgive, but do not forget. Once these historical tragedies are forgotten, they will repeat themselves in disastrous, baneful fashion. It can be stopped. It must be stopped. Its up to each person to do their part. Im just trying to do mine. A little append of the puzzle, but each little piece counts.
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
Alexander Solzhenitsyns employment in episodes one and two of One Day in the career of Ivan Denisovich is to develop Ivan Denisovich Shukhov as a mediator for individualised views and then to hand those views on life, prison, and control to the reader. This purpose is accomplished by the authors social function of characterization, symbolism, and aphorism.The readers companionship of Shukhov is almost as restricted as the rules set forth in Shukhovs prison, and there is nothing that sets Shukhov apart from the rest of the captives. This allows the reader to focus slight on him as a character and more on what he is intended to convey. The authors first use of characterization occurs in the quotation, Shukhov never overslept reveille. He always got up at once, for the next ninety, until they assembled for work, belonged to him, not to the authorities (17). Through this quotation, the reader recognizes how Shukhov is willing to partake in the many a(prenominal) challenges set forth by authority, but still appreciates the time he can set aside for himself. This characterization of Shukhov shows that the author values the musical theme of self-awareness. This is essential further in the novel as seen when Shukhov reflects on the greatness of mealtime or breaks as solely for ones self, which contrastingly reveals the extent in which authority has stolen time from the prisoners. Another example of characterization stems from the quotation, Shukhov realized, as he had guessed on the way there, that he wasnt being sent to the guardhouse at allit was only when that the guardroom floor needed scrubbing (23). This quotation shows that Shukhov has an in-depth understanding of the operations in spite of appearance his prison and can be trusted by the reader to extend reliable exposure. The rea... ... the prisoners survived. This is necessary to understand for later in the novel when an impressiveness is placed on ones ability to outsmart the authority in ru les of order to actually survive prison. For instance, when Shukhov tricks the cook in prison into giving his team more dishes. By using aphorisms from Shukhov, Solzhenitsyn is able to express universal truths to cast down the communistic society around him, a personal view he wished to share on a global scale. Through the characterization of Shukhov, the use of symbolism, and the use of aphorisms, Solzhenitsyn is able to recognize Shukhov as a mediator of his personal views thus providing the reader with the observations that he has made as a prisoner himself.Works CitedSolzhenitsyn, Alexander. One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. Trans. Ralph Parker. New York E.P. Dutton, a Division of Penguin, 1963. Print.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
IntroductionThere ar folders on your computer that Microsoft has try hard to keepsecret. Within these folders you will find two major(ip) things Microsoft net profit Explorer has been logging every last(predicate) of the sites you look at ever visited -- nonetheless after youve cle bed your history, and Microsofts Outlook Express hasbeen logging all of your email correspondence -- even after youve carry offdthem from your Deleted Items bin. (This also includes all incoming and shell file attachments.) And believe me, thats not even the half of it.When I tell apart these files are hidden well, I really mean it. If you dont have both knowledge of DOS then dont plan on finding these files on your own. Isay this because these files/folders wont be displayed in Windows Explorer atall -- simply DOS. (Even after you have en satisfactoryd Windows Explorer to "view allfiles.") And to decease it off, the only way to find them in DOS is if you knewthe exact location of them. B asically, what Im saying is if you didnt knowthe files existed then the chances of you running across them is slim toslimmer.Its fire to note that Microsoft does not explain this behavioradequately at all. proficient try searching on microsoft.com.I know there are nigh people out there that are already aware of whatever of the things I mention. I also know that most people are not. The purpose of this tutorial is teach people what is really going on with Microsofts products andhow to take control of their privacy again. This tutorial was written by me,so if you see a mistake round(prenominal)where then it is my mistake, and I apologize. give thanks for reading.INDEX1) DEFINITIONS AND ACRONYMS2) WHY YOU SHOULD ERASE THESE FILES3) HOW TO ERASE THE FILES ASAP3.1) If You Own Microsoft Internet Explorer3.2) Clearing Your Registry3.3) If You Own Outlook Express3.4) sluttish files3.5) Keeping Microsofts Products4) STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE THROUGH YOUR HIDDEN FILES (For the savvy.)1. DEFIN ITIONS AND ACRONYMSWell, the best explanation I have been able to come up with is the followingI) A "really hidden" file/folder is one that cannot be seen in WindowsExplorer after enabling it to "view all files," and cannot be seen in MS-DOSafter receiving a proper directory listing from root.a) There is at to the lowest degree one loophole to enabling Windows Explorer to see ... ...de. ME users use a bootdisk.) furrow that you must(prenominal) restart to DOS because windows has locked down some of thefiles and they can only be accessed in real DOS mode.3) Type this in at promptCDWINDOWSTEMPOR1CONTENT.IE5CD %alphanumeric%(replace the "%alphanumeric%" with the first name that you only wrote down.)DIR/PThe cache files you are now looking at are directly responsible for themysterious erosion of HD space you may have been noticing. One thingparticularly interesting is the ability to view some your old e-mail if youhappen to have a hotmail account. (Oddly, Iv e only been able to retreivehotmail e-mail, and not e-mail from my other web-based e-mail accounts. Sendme your experiences with this.) To see them for yourself you must first copythem into another directory and then open them with your browser. Dont askme why this works.A note about these files These are your cache files that help stop number upyour internet browsing. It is quite normal to use this cache system, as everymajor browser does. On the other hand. It isnt normal for some cache filesto be left behined after you have instructed your browser to erase it.
Capital Punishment - Its Fair and Effective Confronting head-on two of the nigh prominent objections to the death penalisation is the object of this paper Is the death penalization a miscarriage of justice? And Does it Deter Crime? Its a miscarraige of justice. In a survey Professors Hugo Adam Bedau and Michael Radelet found that 7000 persons were executed in the united States between 1900 and 1985 and that 35 were artless of capital crimes (1). Among the innocents they list Sacco and Vanzetti as come up as Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Although their data may be questionable, I do non doubt that, over a long enough period, miscarriages of justice get out occur even in capital cases. Despite precautions, nearly on the whole human activities, such as trucking, lighting, or construction, cost the lives of some innocent bystanders. We do not give up these activities, because the advantages, moral or material, outstrip the unintended losses (2). Analogously, for those who thin k the death penalization just, miscarriages of justice are offset by the moral benefits and the usefulness of doing justice. For those who think death penalty unjust even when it does not miscarry, miscarriages can hardly be decisive. Is it a impairment? Despite much recent work, in that location has been no conclusive statistical demonstration that the death penalty is a better rafter than are alternative punishments (3). However, deterrence is less than decisive for either side. to the highest degree abolitionists acknowledge that they would continue to favor abolition even if the death penalty were shown to deter more murders than alternatives could deter (4). Abolitionists appear to value the life of a convicted murderer or, at least, his non-execution, more highly than they v... ...n, however just, of murderers. But although there is a lively discussion of the subject, not serious evidence exists to book the hypothesis that executions produce a higher murder rate. Cf. Phllips, the deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment New Evidence on an older Controversy, 86 Am. J. Soc. 139 (1980) (arguing that murder rates drop immediately after executions of criminals). 6 H. Gross, A Theory of Criminal Justice 489 (1979) (attri howevering this passage to Sir James Fitzjames Stephen). 7 Weems v. United States, 217 U.S. 349 (1910) suggest that penalties be proportionate to the seriousness of the crime - a common theme in criminal law. Murder, therefore, demands more that life imprisonment. In modern times, our sensibility requires that the range of punishments be narrower than the range of crime - but not so narrow as to exclude the death penalty.